As a professor at Seminole State College I like to feature students work periodically. Amerys, one of my students in the Bachelors of Construction Management program, wrote a paper worthy of sharing.
The assignment was to compare and contrast the “traditional safety techniques” still used in many organizations (i.e. enforcement, rules, manuals, etc…) with the “modern safety management methods” used by world class safety performers (i.e. Metrics, Accountability, Score Cards, etc…). Then the students were to explain how measuring safety performance has changed since we started using “modern safety management methods”.
Here is her response:
MODERN SAFETY MANAGEMENT METHODS
A group of old safety techniques that are not systematically applied or implemented at all and do not reach all the components of a safety system.
Address hazards in the worksite, reach the management system and assess human behavior, through a new and effective approach.
Don’t have scientific, behavioral or practical foundations, and are solely based on habits or traditions. They don’t evolve, and the system is usually accepted as it is.
Are based on education, assessment, observation, prevention and control, and outline responsibilities and support positive reinforcement.
Employ tricks and give rewards for following important regulations.
Plan, organize, and set goals, control and guide safety rules as a business function.
Usually get unwanted results like unreported injuries. Safety is considered separate from other worksite functions and in some cases is even viewed as a source of punishment or as the sole responsibility of a determined person.
Create a positive environment because they involve everybody in the worksite in the safety process and minimize dangerous work environment and risks.
Create distrust between workers and the management because the former are blame for breaking rules.
Create trust. The employees are expected to know and take the necessary precautionary measures to create and keep a safe workplace and they contribute to solving problems.
TRADITIONAL SAFETY TECHNIQUES AND
None of the aforesaid methods can eliminate the risk of injuries completely.
Both are supposed to achieve safety in the workplace and a positive safety culture.
If either one of these methods is not working, it means that there are problems in the management system and/or in the participation of the work force.
Both methods should imply actively identifying and controlling workplace hazards (including those generated by behavior), staff involvement and feedback, and regular supervisions, but the approaches are very different, so the results from them are vary from each other.
Measuring safety performance is not just complying with specifications anymore. Keeping records of injuries (measuring of failures) and historical records are not reliable indicators any longer because whether a particular event results in an injury is often a matter of chance, so it will not necessarily reflect whether or not a hazard is under control. Good safety performance statistics could be the result of few employees being exposed to the hazard or events not reported.
It is more productive to recognize were action is required and with what level of immediacy, provide solutions, and get feedback. At the time of measuring, the important things are those that impact health and safety (no just collecting excessive data), and the design of the process to measure the performance must include a representation of employees to stimulate ideas and team work.
Every worksite have unique characteristics, even in the same industry, thus the performance strategy must applied accordingly. In a hypothetical construction worksite, leading activity indicators to measure safety would be:
To check if the construction planning and cost control is effective, because usually when one construction activity gets behind schedule or exceeds the budget is when safety starts to get compromised in order to get on track again. Planning and knowing which activities will be going on simultaneously or in which order activities will occur would prevent accidents and rule breaking.
Management labor and direction, including leadership, clear communication, integrity and most importantly motivational skills.
Effectivity and frequency of supervisions and applications of long term solutions.
Objectivity in correcting and eliminating hazards and dangerous conditions.
Fulfillment of First Aid Requirements and emergency procedures trainings.
Observation of labor force and its risky behavior at all times and circumstances.
Safety education at all levels.
Results measures, although not preemptive, can give some general ideas about a company’s risks and its safety performance projection into the future. Some of them are:
Evaluations of results in periodic form and over time.
Ratio of accidents and incidents reported, in function of hours worked, and how they were followed up.
Reduction or increment in medical treatments, lost-time injury or sick days.
Student Bio: Amerys has a Bachelor Degree in Architecture from ISPJAE, University of Havana Cuba, and an A.S. Degree in Architectural Design and Construction Technology and A.A. Degree, both from Seminole State College. She has worked in architectural, construction and surveying and mapping companies and as a Lab assistant teacher for Autodesk AutoCAD and Autodesk Land Development Desktop at Seminole State College where she is attending to obtain her Bachelor’s Degree.
Effective communication and effective listening go hand-in-hand, but we find ourselves, and others, listening less…and less. This is due to not only lack of time, but quite often we’re occupied with our high-tech gadgets and social networking.
At work, effective communication and listening skills help ensure understanding, build relationships, solve problems, resolve conflicts, and improve productivity. Being able to communicate effectively helps form highly efficient teams in the workplace…it helps employees and managers work together harmoniously. And what’s the result of a team that works well together? A highly productive, reliable and responsible team.
– Provide detailed information
– Are realistic in expectations
– Are proactive, assertive and action-oriented
– Communicate choices instead of demands
– Are honest
– Ask questions when unclear
– Provide inaccurate or incomplete information
– Criticize others publicly
– Blame others when problems arise
– Use aggressive or threatening language
– Make sarcastic remarks
– Don’t listen
– Act bossy and negative
– Face the speaker
– Be attentive, but relaxed
– Keep an open mind
– Try to picture what the speaker is saying
– Do not interrupt
– Ask questions when unclear
– Check their phone/watch
– Are distracted
– Listen with preconceived judgments
– Miss out on body language
– Frequently interrupt to impose their opinions
– Do not ask for clarification
Employees are more receptive to feedback on poor performance and at-risk behavior when it’s done in a friendly, positive and respectful manner. In this manner, feedback will be accepted without resentment or retaliation. Personal praise and recognition for safe behavior and safety accomplishments should be provided.
To improve your communication/listening skills, be assertive, confident, action-oriented, express your opinions directly and honestly. Don’t forget to be respectful of others’ opinions, to listen carefully and thank them for their input.
Effective safety communication leads to improved safety performance and better morale.
Geller, E. S. People-Based Safety: The Source. Virginia Beach, VA: Coastal Training Technologies Corporation
The holidays have come and gone. Everyone is back to work. And while many have made “New Year’s Resolutions” to eat better, exercise more or spend more time with family, few have made resolutions to make their lives more productive on the job.
Did you know that the more organized you are at work, the more productive you are, thus happier you and your boss are?
Think about it…Workplace Organization.
How many times have been looking for an item and can’t remember where you put it? You look in your desk drawers, the filing cabinet, and your briefcase, but you still can’t find it! Then begins the dreaded task of asking your coworkers and even your boss, if they have seen what you’re looking for. Hopefully, either you remember where it is or someone finds it. Will this incident be followed by suggestions from your coworkers and/or boss on being more organized?
Well, we would like to put in our two cents as well. It so happens there is a program that focuses on organizing, cleaning, and creating a visually pleasing workplace. It’s called the 5S…developed by the Japanese and utilized by manufacturers worldwide.
The 5S’s are:
SORT – Start by deciding what things are necessary to have in the work area. By necessary, we mean items used at least once per month. Sort through everything in your area and decide what items are used frequently. Not only will you evaluate the equipment to do your job, but you will discover work surfaces that were unusable due to the “stuff” accumulated.
SHINE – In addition to daily cleanup, you must do in-depth cleaning. Create a checklist of daily or weekly cleaning activities to keep your area dust and clutter free.
SET IN ORDER– A place for everything and everything in its place. The secret to success is that the team agrees on the best locations for items in the workspace and how many of those items are required.
STANDARDIZE – Make the organization of the work space visual. Designate an area to keep pens, pencils, sticky notes, staples, etc. Designate an area for copy paper boxes or hand trucks and if necessary, use yellow tape to define an outline on the floor. If you work with tools, how about having a tool board with an outline of each tool so they are easy to find and know when they’re missing. Remember – there’s a place for everything & everything should be in its place.
SUSTAIN – Both management and employees must commit to the 5S system and continue to work through Sorting, Shining, Setting in Order and Standardizing. Also, remember that this is an ongoing improvement process. To sustain the 5S system, there should be periodic reviews of each work area.
Although the 5S system sounds like an easy way to get organized, it is! With continued commitment and dedication from everyone, the results will be worth it. Sooner than later you will start to notice improvements in efficiency and quality, reduction in accidents and best of all, everyone will be spending time doing value added work.
Safety Links offers a 4-hour course designed for all levels of employees working in the manufacturing and processing industries. The course can be customized to your site specific needs. Give us a call at 800-768-7036 with questions or for additional information.
Are you and your employees prepared on how to respond when faced with spills of hazardous materials and/or waste? Before deciding whether the 40 hr. or 24 hr. Hazwoper is suitable for your needs, you must determine the types of emergency situations that you may face.
In order to do so, several factors must be taken into consideration such as:
- The types and quantities of materials at your site
- The types of processes being conducted
- The availability of local emergency resources
- The potential impact on your employees and the community.
What is HAZWOPER?
HAZWOPER stands for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. Once you have evaluated and determined the potential emergency situations for your operations, the next step is to review OSHA’s Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.120, also known as the HAZWOPER standard.
When reviewing the HAZWOPER you will come across Sections B through P which covers hazardous waste operations such as clean-up procedures at hazardous waste sites or operations involving hazardous waste at treatment, storage and disposal facilities. Thus, you will notice that Section Q only covers emergency response.
It is important that you address appropriate issues when researching HAZWOPER issues and/or choosing a training provider that will best identify your needs. It is not uncommon for people to enroll in a HAZWOPER class to learn about spill response only to find out later that the class focuses on hazardous waste sites.
What is a Hazardous Substance?
When it comes to chemicals, a variety of definitions for “hazardous” exist. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is concerned with the hazards of materials in transport and orients its definitions of hazardous toward air transportation and other specific transport concerns. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with the impact on the environment when materials are released or disposed and makes hazardous determinations based on environmental and human health risks.
OSHA is concerned with the hazards of materials to which workers might be exposed in the workplace. Any chemical that might present a health or physical hazard is defined as a hazardous chemical under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. Health hazards include any adverse health effect from irritants to corrosives or carcinogens.
The HAZWOPER standard applies to releases of hazardous substances. Although it is an OSHA standard, it does not use the Hazard Communication Standard for hazardous chemicals. The HAZWOPER standard traces its origin to an EPA law, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund), and derives its definition of hazardous substances from CERCLA regulations. The CERCLA definition is based on the substance’s potential impact on the environment and the community.
The basic idea is to include chemicals that would present a significant hazard to people or the environment if spilled or released. Chemicals that do not fall into one of these categories might still present a slight hazard to employees and emergency responders, but technically do not trigger HAZWOPER requirements.
The HAZWOPER standard establishes five basic training requirements related to chemical emergency response:
1. First Responder Awareness Level
2. First Responder Operations Level
3. Hazardous Materials Technician
4. Hazardous Materials Specialist
5. On-Scene Incident Commander
First Responder “Awareness” Level training is required for individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release and who would take no action beyond notification of the proper authorities. Even if you do not have a spill team and do not plan to respond to spill emergencies, your employees might need First Responder Awareness Level training. This training potentially could include everyone from the machine operator to the security guard.
First Responder “Operations” Level training is required for individuals who respond to releases or potential releases as part of the initial response. They are trained to respond in a defensive manner to protect people, property and the environment. Defensive actions are those taken from a safe distance to keep the spill from spreading and to prevent exposures. Examples include covering drains, placing spill booms or barriers and barricading access points, all from safe distances.
Hazardous Materials “Technician” training is required for individuals who will respond to the release or potential release for the purpose of stopping the release. In other words, they are responding in an offensive manner. They usually will be close to the source of the release and, therefore, have a high potential for harmful exposures. Examples include over packing a leaking drum or collecting contaminated absorbents.
The investment in training, as well as in procedures and equipment, substantially increases when moving up to the “Technician” level of response. Technician level calls for at least 24 hours of training. Personnel also must demonstrate competency in several areas, including the emergency response plan, instrumentation, the incident command system, selection and use of personal protective equipment, hazard and risk assessment, containment and control, decontamination, termination procedures and basic chemistry and toxicology.
Hazardous Materials “Specialist” training is similar to the Hazardous Materials Technician training. The specialist however, is required to have greater knowledge of the chemicals to which he or she might respond, as well as to act as a liaison with governmental authorities. He or she also provides support to the hazardous materials technician. Again, at least twenty-four hours of training is required.
On-Scene Incident Commander training is required for any response beyond the First Responder Awareness Level. The role of the incident commander is to assume control of the incident scene. The incident commander must be someone on-site who is designated and trained to be in charge of the incident. The required training will vary with the level and complexity of the response. The minimum required training is 24 hours.
Remember, like all OSHA requirements, these training requirements are a minimum. Based on the nature of your facility and its hazards, additional training may be necessary. It is also important for each emergency responder to stay current. With that said all levels of HAZWOPER training requires annual refresher training or a demonstration of competency.
By allowing a HazMat team to respond to nonemergency spills, a facility provides an excellent way to maintain skills that would be needed in an emergency. Whatever you choose to do, you must remember to document the training and competency evaluations.
If you have any questions regarding Hazwoper training or if you would like to book a Hazwoper class at your site, click here
Previously, employers had to report the following events to OSHA:
- All work-related fatalities
- All work-related hospitalizations of three or more employees
Now, employers have to report the following events to OSHA:
- All work-related fatalities
- All work-related in-patient hospitalizations of one or more employees
- All work-related amputations
- All work-related losses of an eye
Employers must report work-related fatalities within 8 hours of finding out about it.
For any in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or eye loss employers must report the incident within 24 hours of learning about it.
Only fatalities occurring within 30 days of the work-related incident must be reported to OSHA. Further, for an inpatient hospitalization, amputation or loss of an eye, then incidents must be reported to OSHA only if they occur within 24 hours of the work-related incident.
Employers have three options for reporting the event:
1. By telephone to the nearest OSHA Area Office during normal business hours.
2. By telephone to the 24-hour OSHA hotline (1-800-321-OSHA or 1-800-321-6742).
3. OSHA is developing a new means of reporting events electronically, which will be released soon and accessible on OSHA’s website.
For additional information please go to: https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping2014/
An estimated 5 million workers are required to wear respirators in 1.3 million workplaces throughout the United States. Respirators protect workers against insufficient oxygen environments, harmful dusts, fogs, smokes, mists, gases, vapors and sprays. These hazards may cause cancer, lung impairment, diseases, or death. Compliance with the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard could avert hundreds of deaths and thousands of illnesses annually.
Respirators protect the user in two basic ways. The first is by the removal of contaminants from the air. Respirators of this type include particulate respirators, which filter out airborne particles, and air-purifying respirators with cartridges/canisters which filter out chemicals and gases. Other respirators protect by supplying clean respirable air from another source. Respirators that fall into this category include airline respirators, which use compressed air from a remote source, and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), which include their own air supply.
Respiratory protection must be worn whenever you are working in a hazardous atmosphere. The appropriate respirator will depend on the contaminant(s) to which you are exposed and the protection factor (PF) required. Required respirators must be NIOSH-approved and medical evaluation and training must be provided before use.
Some respirator types include:
Single-strap dust masks are usually not NIOSH-approved. They must not be used to protect from hazardous atmospheres. However, they may be useful in providing comfort from pollen or other allergens.
Approved filtering facepieces (dust masks) can be used for dust, mists, welding fumes, etc. They do not provide protection from gases or vapors. DO NOT USE FOR ASBESTOS OR LEAD; instead, select from the respirators below.
Half-face respirators can be used for protection against most vapors, acid gases, dust or welding fumes. Cartridges/filters must match contaminant(s) and be changed periodically.
Full-face respirators are more protective than half-face respirators. They can also be used for protection against most vapors, acid gases, dust or welding fumes. The face-shield protects face and eyes from irritants and contaminants. Cartridges/filters must match contaminant(s) and be changed periodically.
Loose-fitting powered-air-purifying respirators (PAPR) offer breathing comfort from a battery-powered fan which pulls air through filters and circulates air throughout helmet/hood. They can be worn by most workers who have beards. Cartridges/filters must match contaminant(s) and be changed periodically.
A Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) is used for entry and escape from atmospheres that are considered immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) or oxygen deficient. They use their own air tank.
If you would like more information on respirator safety, contact Trevor Reschny at 800-788-7036 or email him at email@example.com.
Thousands of incidents occur every day in the US. Effective incident investigations determine how and why these failures occur. By using the information gained through an investigation, a similar, or perhaps more disastrous event may be prevented. It is important to conduct incident investigations with prevention in mind.
Incident investigations really only have two goals:
- Determining what caused the incident in the first place
- Using the information you discovered during the investigation to help prevent recurrence
Many times, the cause of the incident is not completely obvious. During an incident investigation it is imperative that all employees assist the investigator as he or she conducts the investigation. This can be difficult and/or embarrassing for some so it is important to remind and reassure them that the ultimate goal of the investigation is to create a safer workplace for everyone. The goal of the investigation is not to assign blame, but rather keep the incident from occurring again.
So how do we begin? The first step is to ensure that any injured persons are being cared for and then to secure the area of the incident. The investigator should have an undisturbed view of the scene so that photos, video and measurements accurately portray the scene and any evidence contained therein. Further, interviews of witnesses, coworkers, supervisors, etc. need to be conducted. Investigators should also interview and obtain statements from those who perform similar jobs or jobs in the same area as the incident as they may have valuable insight into what may have happened.
Some incident investigators use a technique called root cause analysis during their investigation. Root cause analysis helps identify what, how and why something happened thus preventing recurrence. Root causes are underlying, reasonably identifiable and can be controlled by management. Further, they allow for generation of recommendations. The process involves data collection, cause charting, root cause identification and recommendation generation and implementation.
While a lot can be learned from incidents, we can learn also learn from “near misses” as well. Those incidents that didn’t involve an injury but could have easily had a terrible result. Make sure that near-misses are always reported so that your supervisor can address them. The information learned from a near-miss is far less expensive than what is learned from an incident. Remember, prevention is always the best cure.
No matter how safe workers do their jobs, an incident can always happen. Make sure you follow the basic steps to enable incident investigators to do their job correctly and find the “root cause” of the incident. An incident investigation can create a safer workplace and that’s good for everyone.
If you would like more information on incident investigation training for your supervisors contact Trevor Reschny at 407-760-6170 or email him at treschny [at] safetylinks.net
If you work with hazardous chemicals, you have likely heard about the United Nations’ Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals or GHS. In a nutshell, the GHS was developed by the United Nations as a way to bring into agreement the chemical regulations and standards of different countries. In the United States, OSHA revised its Hazard Communication Standard to align with the GHS in March of 2012.
Why all the fuss? The GHS is basically an international attempt to get everyone on the same page. The United Nations realized that many countries already have/had regulatory systems in place for classification, labeling, etc.; however the differences are significant enough to require multiple classifications, labels, and safety data sheets for the same product. Multiple classifications can lead to inconsistent protection for users as well as extensive regulatory burdens on chemical companies. The hope is that every country will incorporate the GHS elements into their own chemical management systems with the goal of making the international sale and transportation of hazardous chemicals easier, as well as making workplace conditions safer for all employees exposed to chemical hazards.
So what does this mean to me?
To date, over 65 countries have adopted (or are in the process of adopting) the GHS. If your company acquires chemicals from one of these countries, you will benefit from a consistent set of criteria regarding definitions, classifications, labeling and safety data sheet information for the chemical you use. In the United States, you will notice two significant changes contained in the revised OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. The revised standard requires the use of new labeling elements and a standardized format for Safety Data Sheets (SDSs), formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). The new labeling elements and SDS requirements will improve your understanding of the hazards associated with the chemicals in your workplace.
When does this all take effect? To help companies comply with the revised standard, OSHA is phasing in the specific requirements over several years (December 1, 2013 to June 1, 2016). Specifically, by December 1, 2013, employers should have trained their employees on the new label elements and safety data sheet format.
By June 1, 2015, chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers must come into compliance with all modified provisions of the final rule. Further, by December 1, 2015, distributors shall not ship containers labeled by the chemical manufacturer or importer unless it has a GHS label. Finally, by June 1, 2016, employers must update alternative workplace labeling and their hazard communication program as necessary, and provide additional employee training for newly identified physical or health hazards.
Employers will need to ensure they have incorporated the revised Hazard Communication Standard into their Hazard Communication program including replacing current MSDSs and labels with updated (GHS appropriate) SDSs and labels as well as train their employees in the new standard, however, once everyone is “singing—in harmony—from the same sheet of music,” a safer workplace will be the payoff.
If you would like more information or need to complete the required employee training on the new Hazard Communication Standard, contact Randy Free at 800-788-7036 or email him at firstname.lastname@example.org
Moving machine parts have the potential for causing severe workplace injuries, such as crushed fingers or hands, amputations, burns, and blindness, just to name a few. Also machine guarding and related machinery violations continuously rank among the top 20 of OSHA citations issued. Here are the top 4 issues we find in the field:
#1 Missing Machine Guard
1910.212(a)(1) General requirements for all machines—Machine guarding. Types of guarding—One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks.
#2 Bench Grinder Tongue Guard out of Adjustment
1910.215(b)(9) Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery. The peripheral protecting member (guard) shall be provided and adjusted within 1⁄4 inch of the wheel to contain and deflect fragments away from the operator.
#3 Bench Grinder Work Rest out of Adjustment
1910.215(a)(4) Abrasive wheel machinery—General requirements. Work rests—on offhand grinding machines, work rests shall be used to support the work.… Work rests shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1⁄8 inch to prevent work from being jammed between wheel and rest.…
#4 Point of Operation Machine Guarding
1910.212(a)(3) General requirements for all machines—Machine guarding. Point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury shall be guarded.… Special hand tools for placing and removing material shall permit easy handling of material without the operator placing a hand in the danger zone.
In general any machine part, function, or process that might cause injury must be safeguarded. When the operation of a machine or accidental contact with it could injure the operator or others in the vicinity, the hazards must be either controlled or eliminated.
Here are some general requirements and suggestions for Safeguards:
- Prevent contact: The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, and any other part of an operator’s body from making contact with dangerous moving parts. A good safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of the operator or another worker placing parts of their bodies near hazardous moving parts.
- Secure: Operators should not be able to easily remove or tamper with the safeguard, because a safeguard that can easily be made ineffective is no safeguard at all. Guards and safety devices should be made of durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly secured to the machine.
- Protect from falling objects: The safeguard should ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts. A small tool dropped into a cycling machine could easily become a projectile that could strike and injure someone.
- Create no new hazards: A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard such as a shear point, a jagged edge, or an unfinished surface that could cause a laceration. The edges of guards, for instance, should be rolled or bolted in such a way to eliminate sharp edges.
- Create no interference: Any safeguard that impedes an operator from performing the job quickly and comfortably might soon be overridden or disregarded. Proper safeguarding may actually enhance efficiency since it relieves the operator’s apprehensions about injury.
- Allow safe lubrication: If possible, workers should be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards. Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard, with a line leading to the lubrication point, will reduce the need for the operator or maintenance operator to enter the hazardous area.
Keep in mind that guards are engineering controls which eliminate the hazard at the source and do not rely on the operator’s behavior for their effectiveness. With that said even the most elaborate safeguarding system cannot offer effective protection unless the operator knows how to use it and why. Specific and detailed training is therefore a crucial part of any effort to provide safeguarding against machine-related hazards.
If you would like to arrange a machine guarding assessment of your facility contact Randy Free. 407-353-8165 or email him at rfree[at]safetylinks.net
One-minute training sessions on how to do hands-only CPR delivered via kiosks placed in shopping malls, airports and other public places could save lives. This was the finding of new research presented at an American Heart Association (AHA) Resuscitation Science Symposium held in Dallas, TX, over the weekend.
A team from the University of Arizona came to this conclusion after carrying out a short study based around an AHA Hands-Only CPR training kiosk that was installed at Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport earlier this year.
Hands-only Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) does not require giving the kiss of life, which can put some people off who might otherwise be prepared to try resuscitation.
If ambulances come quickly, experts believe that instructing people to just “push hard, push fast” saves more lives. That is the idea behind the new guidelines released by the AHA in 2010 that permit the use of simpler hand-only or compression-only CPR in some cases instead of conventional CPR.
However, hands-only CPR may not be the best approach for rural or remote areas where the waiting time is more than a few minutes for an ambulance.
To read the full story, visit http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/268958.php.
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